FDM 3D tisk, problémy s tiskem první vrstvy

1. Problem: Irregular adhesion to the pad

Cause: Insufficient distance of nozzle from pad, misaligned pad.


Check that the pad is clean and free of grease.

Use adhesive, special tapes or resin for better adhesion.

Align (level) the pad so that it is level with the print head.

2. Problem: Filament does not stick to the substrate

Cause: pad is too low or too high.


Adjust the height of the pad relative to the print head.

Use the correct pad temperature for the filament type.

3. Problem: Filament collects around the nozzle

Cause: Excessive extrusion pressure or nozzle temperature too low.


Check and adjust nozzle temperature setting if necessary.

Make sure the extrusion motor is properly calibrated.

4. Problem: Visible gaps between first layer paths

Cause: Insufficient amount of extruded filament.


Check the calibration of the extrusion step.

Adjust the "first layer height" and "first layer width" in the printing software.

5. Problem: Ripples or bubbles in the first layer

Cause: too high pad or nozzle temperature.


Adjust temperatures to match recommended values for your filament.

If you are using a pad with adhesive, make sure it is evenly applied.

6. Problem: First layer is too thick or uneven

Cause: poor Z-axis calibration.


Check and adjust stepper motors and Z-axis wires.

Use the "Live Z" calibration (if available) to fine tune the height of the first layer.

7. Problem: First layer has an "elephant skin" texture or is rough

Cause: too fast printing speed of the first layer or improper temperature.


Slow down the printing speed of the first layer.

Adjust the nozzle or pad temperature to better suit the specific filament type.

8. Problem: Low adhesion between first layer paths

Cause: Too much distance between routes or incorrect ratio of route width to layer height.


Check and adjust the settings for route width and layer height in the printing software.

Make sure the substrate is clean and free of dust or grease.

9. Problem: First layer is uneven or "wavy"

Cause: the substrate is not properly aligned.


Perform a careful leveling (leveling) of the pad.

If available, use automatic pad calibration.

10. Problem: Material "splatters" or "splashes" when printing the first layer.

Cause: Excessive moisture in the filament.


Keep the filament in a dry environment and dry it if necessary (e.g., in a filament dryer or in an oven at low temperatures).

11. Problem: Visible trace lines between the first layer routes

Cause: Suboptimal extruder pressure setting or insufficient compression of the filament to the substrate.


Check extruder pressure setting and adjust if necessary.

Adjust the height of the first layer so that the route is more compressed against the substrate.

12. Problem: Impressions or deformations in the first layer caused by previous printing

Cause: filament residue from a previous print was not properly removed.


Always clean the pad thoroughly before starting a new print.

Use a scraper or similar tool to remove any remaining material.

13. Problem: First layer is too transparent or thin

Cause: too low filament flow when printing the first layer.


Increase the "first layer extrusion multiplier" value in the printing software.

Make sure the extrusion wheel is clean and properly adjusted to properly drive the filament.

14. Problem: Cracks or gaps appear in the first layer

Cause: Too much distance between nozzle and pad.


Adjust the height of the first layer in the printing software or manually adjust the height of the pad.

Use fine-tuning of the height using the "Live Z adjust" function, if available.

Problem: The filament does not form a continuous path, but rather "beads" or "dots"

Cause: Too much distance between nozzle and pad or incorrect filament flow.


Adjust the pad height to be closer to the nozzle.

Check and adjust the "extrusion multiplier" setting.

16. Problem: Flicker or ripple on the first layer

Cause: Excessive filament pressure or unstable printer movement.


Adjust the pressure in the extruder.

Check and tighten all parts of the printer to ensure stability during printing.

17: First layer has uneven color or is mottled

Cause: mixing of different filaments, nozzle contamination, or inconsistency in the filament.


Make sure the nozzle is clean of old filament residue.

If necessary, clean the nozzle.

Use good quality filament and keep it in a dry environment.

18: The first layer lifts or warps at the edges when printing (warping)

Cause: Insufficient adhesion to the substrate, uneven cooling, or poor substrate temperature setting.


Increase pad temperature for better adhesion.

Try using different types of pads or add glue, adhesive spray, or kapton tape.

Make sure the printer is placed in an environment without drafts or temperature fluctuations.

19. Problem: Overflow or "bleeding" occurs when printing the first layer

Cause: Too much pressure in the extruder or too high a nozzle temperature.


Adjust the pressure setting in the extruder.

Reduce the nozzle temperature by a few degrees and check the results.

Problem: Filament not adhering to the substrate during the first layer printing

Cause: the substrate is dirty, the temperature is low, or the nozzle is too far from the substrate.


Clean the pad thoroughly.

Increase the temperature of the pad.

Adjust the nozzle height relative to the pad for better adhesion.

Again, it is worth noting that several adjustment changes may need to be combined to achieve optimal results. It is a good idea to make one change at a time and carefully monitor how this affects the print quality of the first layer.